Zhu Yuanzhang the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) clarified his philosophy of coastal defense in Decree for the Commander of Hainan Garrison. "Since the border demarcation, peace has been restored throughout the country. However, in security we should often guard against dangers for proper protection for our people. Previously I have issued orders for you to drill troops in the remote areas and guard the frontiers. The envoy has been dispatched to remind you to refrain from slackened efforts in military preparedness. Traditionally the vast seas have been taken as a natural barrier; however, I find the belief untenable. In areas to the west and south of our coast, there are numerous barbarian states of varying sizes sharing the seas with us. Should they approach us aboard ships, how can we tell whether their intentions are good or evil? Keep a close watch, so that our people won't be panicked. That is a best stratagem; be deliberate." The core of Zhu's ideal for coast defense is "peaceful coexistence, and resolution in defending the territorial seas."