Archaeological survey of Nansha Qundao started in the early 1990s, during which systematic and scientific investigation and excavation was launched mainly by archaeologists from Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan Province.
1) Archaeological Survey of Nansha Qundao in 1992
From May to June 1992, Professor Wang Hengjie from Minzu University of China conducted the first archaeological survey of Nansha Qundao, with the help of fishermen from Qionghai. Landing on Nansha Qundao from Yongdeng Jiao, he passed the outer reefs of Beizidao and Nanzidao, Daoming Reefs, Zhenghe Reefs and Taiping Dao, Fulusi Jiao, Daxian Jiao, Yongshu Jiao, Huanglusi Jiao, Nantong Jiao, Beikang and Nankang Breakwater, before reaching Zengmu Ansha. He obtained a batch of heritage specimens between the Qin Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty along his way, mainly including shards of hard pottery urns with concentric circles and 米-shaped patterns dating back to the Qin Dynasty, and Wuzhu Coins of the Han Dynasty found on Zhenghe Reefs and Taiping Dao; Tang-Dynasty small-mouth pottery pots with four rope holes found at Yongdeng Reefs, and Tang-Dynasty Kaiyuan Tongbao Coins at Nanxun Reefs and the adjoining seabed; fragments of porcelain wares produced in Longquan Kiln and private kilns of Fujian in the Song Dynasty, and Xining Zhongbao Coins of the Song Dynasty found at Zhenghe Reefs and Taiping Dao; Xining Zhongbao Coins found at Huanglujiao Jiao; Yuanyou Tongbao Coins and Dade Yuanbao Coins found at Fulusi Reefs; fragments of Song- and Yuan-Dynasty celadon and green-glazed porcelain wares found at Daxian Jiao and Nantong Jiao; green-glazed bowls inscribed with “Made in the Ming Dynasty” and “Made in Chenghua Years”; fragments of porcelain wares from private kilns in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Jiaqing Tongbao, Daoguang Tongbao and Xianfeng Tongbao Coins, as well as iron anchor of the Qing Dynasty.
Copper Coins and Other Relics Salvaged from Nansha Qundao
2) Two Archaeological Surveys of Nansha Qundao in 1995
From May 11 to 19, 1995, Professor Wang Hengjie went to Nansha Qundao once again for the second archaeological survey. Aside from three fishermen of Qionghai and No. 00351 fishing boat, he was accompanied by Chen Baoxun and Zhang Liandeng, two media workers from Television Broadcasts Limited of Hong Kong. The originally planned destination of this archaeological investigation was Meiji Jiao, but had to be forfeited somehow. However, coins and celadon porcelain fragments of different historical periods were found to the west of Zhenghe Reefs, Hongma Dao and Nanxun Jiao. Despite its short duration and limited cultural relics obtained, the second survey was also of extraordinary significance. First, precious video data were obtained; second, celadon porcelain wares similar to those of Xisha Qundao were found.
After a four-day archaeological survey of Taiping Dao, Nansha Qundao, from April 13 to 16, 1995, Mr. Chen Zhongyu, affiliated with the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica of Taiwan Province, found a total of 7 ceramic relic spots and 2 tombs. The salvaged relics were mainly porcelain wares, including white porcelains, green-glaze porcelain wares and brown-glaze porcelain wares. Those with discernible shapes included plates, bowls, cups and incense burners. In addition, the monuments of two tombs were recorded.